Thursday, December 11, 2014



PASADA takes care of more than 3000 children living with HIV. One of the challenges the children face is difficulty in understanding how they got the infection and coping with the losses of loved ones as a result of HIV and AIDS.

Having grieving sessions helps them in this process of building resilience. In its program, PASADA conducts Grieving Sessions to children every year.

Grieving is to mourn or feel sorrow for several reasons like death of our beloved ones, our sickness of our self or our beloved ones, separation, disasters, war etc. It is an approach of psychosocial support too.

Psychosocial support is the process of meeting a person's emotional, social, mental and spiritual needs. All of these are essential elements of positive human development.
Psychosocial support is needed by all children. It promotes their psychological and emotional well-being, as well as their physical and mental development.

Psychosocial support helps to build
resiliency in children. It also supports families to provide for the physical, economic, educational, social and health needs of children. Children are resilient, but when faced with extreme adversity and trauma, they and their families can need extra support. Psychosocial support builds internal and external resources for children and their families to be able to understand and deal with adverse events.

Some children need specific, additional psychosocial support. These interventions usually target children who have experienced extreme trauma or adversity, or who are not receiving the necessary support from caregivers. Such interventions should be provided in addition to any ongoing support from families and community. 

Many things can impact on a child’s psychosocial well-being, including poverty, conflict, neglect and abuse. HIV and AIDS can compound these. As a result of HIV and AIDS, children might experience traumatic events such as the illness and death of parents or themselves, violence and exploitation, stigma and discrimination, isolation and loneliness, and lack of adult support and guidance.

Appropriate psychosocial support helps children and their families to overcome these challenges, and builds coping mechanisms, trust and hope in their future.

  • Children know their potential in their family (as human beings)
  • Accept the fact they live with HIV and they are affected with TB. When they take their TB medications properly will be cured and free from the disease.
  • They forgive the people whom did not tell them their status.
  • Promise to each other to study hard, and to achieve their goals.
  • Children learn that in the community there are legal assistance systems like Police, Hospital and Schools that they are there to help them. Whenever they have problems can go and seek assistance.
  • Children living with HIV have needs which need to be discussed and understood.   
  • Caregivers/parents/guardians need to be open to children especially on issues pertaining to their children.
  • Caregivers need parenting seminars on dealing with co infected diseases.

Wednesday, December 10, 2014


On the 9th of December, 2014 the World Health Organization released the World Malaria Report 2014 which shows that; The number of people dying from malaria has fallen dramatically since 2000 and malaria cases are also steadily declining, according to the World malaria report 2014. Between 2000 and 2013, the malaria mortality rate decreased by 47% worldwide and by 54% in the WHO African Region - where about 90% of malaria deaths occur.
New analysis across sub-Saharan Africa reveals that despite a 43% population increase, fewer people are infected or carry asymptomatic malaria infections every year: the number of people infected fell from 173 million in 2000 to 128 million in 2013.For more information click here to read it.

Tuesday, November 25, 2014

HIV/AIDS/STI Surveillance Report Report Number 23

In November 2013, The National AIDS Control Programme Published the 23rd HIV/AIDS/STI Surveillance Report. You can access it here

Friday, November 14, 2014

Operational Guidelines for the Management of Drug Resistant TB in Tanzania

In 2012 The National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme in Tanzania released Operational Guidelines for the Management of Drug Resistant TB in Tanzania. You can access it by clicking here

Thursday, November 13, 2014

Guidelines for Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health Facilities

The National TB and Leprosy Programme published the Guidelines for Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health Facilities in 2010. You can read it here

Monday, November 10, 2014

Manual for Management of Tuberculosis in Children, First Edition, 2012

The National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme released the First Edition of Manual for the Management of Tuberculosis in Children in 2012.
You can download your soft copy here

Wednesday, November 5, 2014


Find the National Guidelines for the Management of HIV and AIDS released by the Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme in April, 2012 here

Thursday, October 16, 2014

The PASADA Medical Bulletin (Now Available)

Hello everyone,
The First Issue of The PASADA Medical Bulletin is now out!
You can find a lot of information about the work being done at PASADA in this bulletin.
To read it click here

Thursday, October 2, 2014

Manual for the Management of Tuberculosis and Leprosy,Sixth Edition,2013 (New)

The National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme released a New Sixth Edition of Manual for the Management of Tuberculosis and Leprosy in Tanzania last year (2013).
You can download your soft copy here

Friday, September 26, 2014

AJSC NIMR Conference Announcement and call for Abstracts

Hello every one,

I have found this one interesting,

Please send some abstract for this conference,

The 29th Annual Joint Scientific Conference and 35th Anniversary of the National Institute for Medical Research,

Tanzania, April 14-17, 2015

Main theme
Advancing health and well-being through innovative research: addressing the double burden of diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa
  1.  Biomedical Research
    1. Addressing the double burden of diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa in the Post 2015 era
    2. Post-2015 Research and Control strategies for Endemic Communicable Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa
    3. Livelihoods and Emerging Infectious Diseases in Africa
    4. Food, Nutrition and Water-borne diseases: neglected public health challenges
  1. Health Systems and Policy
    1. Towards universal health coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Strengthening Health Policies and Systems
    2. Ecosystems and One Health: Cross sectoral approach in the management of diseases
    3. Application of Information technologies for healthcare delivery and management
  1. Social Determinants of Health
    1. Maternal, neonatal, and child survival in Sub-Saharan Africa: social and health implications
    2. Linking evidence to action on social determinants of health
    3. Social dimensions of climate change
Date: April 14-17, 2015
Venue: Julius Nyerere International Convention Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Read More: AJSC-29-ANNOUNCEMENT-2015 - Pdf or AJSC-29-ANNOUNCEMENT-2015 -Word
29TH AJSC Registration form
29TH AJSC Abstract form

Sunday, September 14, 2014

Alcohol Use in HIV Patients Have Adverse Effects on their Health and Disease Progression

As we have been  regularly counseling our HIV Positive Clients to stop Alcohol use due to the negative effects it can have on their health, more evidence is coming up supporting this fact.

A recent study published by the Current HIV Research Journal shows that "the combined insult of alcohol abuse and HIV affects organ systems,including the central nervous system, the immune system, the liver, heart, and lungs, and the musculoskeletal system"- Molina et al, Biomedical Consequences of Alcohol Use Disorders in the HIV-Infected Host, Current HIV Research, 2014, 12, 265-275.
The study goes on to point out that Alcohol impacts immunomodulation, erosion of lean body mass associated with AIDS wasting, and lipodystrophy.
The authors conclude that interventions focused on reducing or avoiding alcohol abuse are likely to be important in decreasing morbidity and improving outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS.
This article can be found at 

The reason I have brought up this article is due to the fact that in our HIV care and treatment clinics we have so many HIV positive clients who are alcoholics and sometimes we wonder why they are not doing fine and deteriorating. Sometimes we have clients who are not just doing fine and we just do not have a direct answer to what could be the reason for their poor progress. This brings us to the task of spending more time with the clients who are not doing fine clinically and dig deep through thorough history taking and even questioning treatment supporters and family members. This way we will serve the lives of so many of our clients.

I welcome you all for discussion.

Tuesday, September 9, 2014

UNAIDS Gap Report 2013 Summary

In sub-Saharan Africa, nearly 90% of people who know their HIV-positive status are on treatment—ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 will require smart scale-up to close the gap.
A new report by UNAIDS shows that 19 million of the 35 million people living with HIV globally do not know their HIV-positive status.
“Whether you live or die should not depend on access to an HIV test,” said Michel Sidibé, Executive Director of UNAIDS. “Smarter scale-up is needed to close the gap between people who know their HIV status and people who don’t, people who can get services and people who can’t and people who are protected and people who are punished.”
The UNAIDS Gap report shows that as people find out their HIV-positive status they will seek life-saving treatment. In sub-Saharan Africa, almost 90% of people who tested positive for HIV went on to access antiretroviral therapy (ART). Research shows that in sub-Saharan Africa, 76% of people on ART have achieved viral suppression, whereby they are unlikely to transmit the virus to their sexual partners. New data analysis demonstrates that for every 10% increase in treatment coverage there is a 1% decline in the percentage of new infections among people living with HIV.
The report highlights that efforts to increase access to ART are working. In 2013, an additional 2.3 million people gained access to the life-saving medicines. This brings the global number of people accessing ART to nearly 13 million by the end of 2013. Based on past scale-up, UNAIDS projects that as of July 2014 as many as 13 950 296 people were accessing ART.
“If we accelerate all HIV scale-up by 2020, we will be on track to end the epidemic by 2030,” said Mr Sidibé. “If not, we risk significantly increasing the time it would take—adding a decade, if not more.”
By ending the epidemic by 2030, the world would avert 18 million new HIV infections and 11.2 million AIDS-related deaths between 2013 and 2030.
Ending the AIDS epidemic
The report reveals that just 15 countries* account for more than 75% of the 2.1 million new HIV infections that occurred in 2013. In every region of the world the report finds that there are three or four countries that bear the burden of the epidemic. In sub-Saharan Africa, just three countries—Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda—account for 48% of all new HIV infections.
However, the report also shows that entire countries are being left behind—for example, six nations—Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Indonesia, Nigeria, Russian Federation and South Sudan—are facing the triple threat of high HIV burden, low treatment coverage and no or little decline in new HIV infections.
In the first report of its kind, the UNAIDS Gap report emphasizes the importance of location and population through an in-depth regional analysis of HIV epidemics and through analysis of 12 populations at higher risk of HIV. It analyses the reasons for the widening gap between people gaining access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support, and people being left behind. It shows how focusing on populations that are undeserved and at higher risk of HIV will be key to ending the AIDS epidemic.
HIV prevalence is estimated to be 28 times higher among people who inject drugs, 12 times higher among sex workers, 19 times higher among gay men and other men who have sex with men and up to 49 times higher among transgender women than among the rest of the adult population. In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls and young women account for one in four new HIV infections. The report looks at why certain populations are not accessing HIV services and outlines the urgent need to address their specific needs.
“There will be no ending AIDS without putting people first, without ensuring that people living with and affected by the epidemic are part of a new movement,” said Mr Sidibé. “Without a people-centered approach, we will not go far in the post-2015 era.”
The report shows that it is both essential and possible to go deeper than a country-wide approach. Because countries and regions have multiple and varying epidemics, the report outlines that having country targets and sound policies in place creates space to address complex micro-epidemics with tailored, bite-sized solutions that will help reach people faster with better HIV services. It notes that cities and communities will play an increasingly major role in effective scale-up.
However, the report also shows that a lack of data on people most affected by HIV, coupled with widespread stigma and discrimination, punitive legal environments, barriers to civil society engagement and lack of investment in tailored programmes are holding back results. It confirms that countries that ignore discrimination and condone inequalities will not reach their full potential, and face serious public health and financial consequences of inaction. The report emphasizes the need for equal access to quality HIV services as both a human rights and public health imperative.
Hope and gaps
UNAIDS is reporting the lowest levels of new HIV infections this century, at 2.1 million [1.9 million–2.4 million]. In the last three years alone new HIV infections have fallen by 13%.
It is estimated that 35 million people were living with HIV in the world at the end of 2013. AIDS-related deaths are at their lowest since the peak in 2005, having declined by 35%. Tuberculosis continues to be the leading cause of death among people living with HIV.
New HIV infections among children have fallen by 58% since 2001 and dropped below 200 000 for the first time in the 21 most affected countries in Africa.

The highest number of people living with HIV was in sub-Saharan Africa—24.7 million [23.5 million–26.1 million] people. Asia and the Pacific had the next largest population of people living with HIV, at an estimated 4.8 million [4.1 million–5.5 million] people.
The percentage of people living with HIV who were receiving treatment was found to be highest in western Europe and North America, at 51% [39–60%], and in Latin America, at 45% [33–51%]. However, coverage was lowest in the Middle East and North Africa, at just 11% [8–16%].
New HIV infections declined most in the Caribbean—by 40% since 2005; however, new HIV infections have risen by 7% in the Middle East and North Africa and by 5% in eastern Europe and central Asia since 2005.
AIDS-related deaths were seen to be rising steeply in the Middle East and North Africa, by 66%. The only other region where AIDS-related deaths are increasing is eastern Europe and central Asia, where AIDS-related deaths rose by 5% between 2005 and 2013.
The report outlines that to close the gap between people who are reached with HIV services and people who are not will require research and innovation combined with protective laws that promote freedom and equality for all people. It will also require increased commitment from the global community and countries most affected to the remarkable returns on investment that have been witnessed over the last 10 years to continue so that the end of the AIDS epidemic can be achieved by 2030.
In 2013, an estimated:
35 million [33.2 million–37.2 million] people globally were living with HIV
2.1 million [1.9 million–2.4 million] people became newly infected with HIV
1.5 million [1.4 million–1.7 million] people died from AIDS-related illnesses

Monday, September 8, 2014

HIV Prevalence in Tanzania by Regions

According to the Tanzania HIV and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011-12, the HIV prevalence dropped from 5.7 to 5.1%.
Today i would like to share with you the HIV prevalence by regions;